I found the BEST coronavirus depiction (+ explanation)

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I found a really cool coronavirus illustration that led me to learn about viral attachment and entry.

LEARN MORE
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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Virus: a submicroscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. The study of viruses is known as virology.
Virion: a complete virus particle, and consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a protective coat of protein called a capsid.
Coronaviruses: a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans and birds, they cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal and include some cases of the common cold, SARS, MERS, and COVID-19.
SARS-CoV-2: the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the respiratory illness responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic.
Class I fusion proteins: resemble influenza virus hemagglutinin in their structure. Post-fusion, the active site has a trimer of α-helical coiled-coils

Proteins featured in this video:
– SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) Protein
– Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan (HSPG) (Syndecan-4, especifically)
– Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)
– Furin
– Transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
Coronaviruses 101: Focus on Molecular Virology by Britt Glaunsinger

Virology Lectures 2021: Attachment and entry by Vincent Racaniello

Building a visual consensus model of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle
https://animationlab.utah.edu/cova

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CREDITS
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Ever Salazar | Script Writer, Narrator, Director, and Illustrator
Aldo de Vos (Know Art) | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
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Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
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Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OTHER CREDITS
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SARS-CoV-2 Fusion, 2020 – Illustration by David S. Goodsell, RCSB Protein Data Bank; doi: 10.2210/rcsb_pdb/goodsell-gallery-026
http://pdb101.rcsb.org/sci-art/goodsell-gallery/sars-cov-2-fusion
Coronavirus outbreak (covid 19) explained through 3D Medical Animation – Video by scientificanimations.com

Coronavirus, Explained: This Pandemic – Video by Netflix
https://www.netflix.com/title/81273378
How the Coronavirus Hijacks Your Cells – Video by Bloomberg Quicktake

Ink Drop/Drip in water – Video by CyberWebFX
https://www.youtube.com/c/CyberWebFX
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REFERENCES
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Afzelius, B. (1994). Ultrastructure of human nasal epithelium during an episode of coronavirus infection. Virchows Archiv 424:295-300

Bestle, D., Heindl, M., Limburg, H., et all (2020). TMPRSS2 and furin are both essential for proteolytic activation of SARS-CoV-2 in human airway cells. doi: 10.26508/lsa.202000786

Buijsers B., et al (2020) Increased Plasma Heparanase Activity in COVID-19 Patients. Front. Immunol. 11:575047. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.575047

Casalino, L., et al (2020). Beyond Shielding: The Roles of Glycans in the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein
ACS Central Science 2020 6 (10), 1722-1734. doi: 10.1021/acscentsci.0c01056

Clausen, T. M., et al (2020). SARS-CoV-2 Infection Depends on Cellular Heparan Sulfate and ACE2. Cell Volume 183, Issue 4, Pages 1043-1057.e15. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.033

Elenius, K & Jalkanen, M. (1994). Function of the syndecans – a family of cell surface proteoglycans. Journal of Cell Science 107, 2975-2982

Shang, J. et al (2020). Cell entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2. PNAS May 26, 2020 117 (21) 11727-11734. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2003138117

Thomas, G. (2002). Furin at the cutting edge: From protein traffic to embryogenesis and disease. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2002 October; 3(10): 753–766

Zhang, Q., et al (2020). Heparan sulfate assists SARS-CoV-2 in cell entry and can be targeted by approved drugs in vitro. Cell Discovery (2020) 6:80. doi: 10.1038/s41421-020-00222-5

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